Extreme diets are just the nutritional version of 30-day fitness challenges. Nearly everyone tries them at some point, but they don't generally turn your life around. We seek out both for the same reason: because it's often not good enough for us to make a change. It also has to feel like we've made a change.
Consuming more fibrous veggies and fewer simple carbs doesn't seem like the path to shedding 50 pounds. It feels better to do something drastic, like switch to getting 70 to 80 percent of our calories from fat, or to eat no fat at all. These new patterns have an aura of commitment about them. Everyone wants the path to fitness and weight loss to be, above all other things, fast. We assume we'll be happy to push through any physical or mental pain if we could only lose the pounds quickly.
But decades of weight-loss research says exactly the opposite. We're bad at sticking to sudden shifts in our habits, especially when it comes to eating. In study after study, researchers find that regardless of the diet, most people only lose five to seven pounds in a year, and most regain a portion of that weight later. This is true whether people eat low-fat, low-carb, or just low-calorie diets.
That's why, when places like U.S. News and World Report rank the “best” diets according to experts, the same kind of diet wins time and again: a balanced nutrient intake that involves really small changes to your eating habits.
This year's rankings have a tie for first place between the DASH and Mediterranean diets. You could probably come up with the guidelines for both without doing any Googling, because they're basically just “eat the foods you're always told to eat.” Focus on fruits, veggies, fish, lean meats, and whole grains. Cut back on sugar and starches. DASH stands for Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension, because it was originally designed to, you guessed it, lower hypertension. The next four diets—flexitarian, Weight Watchers, MIND, and TLC—are all essentially variations on that theme. MIND stands for Mediterranean-DASH Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay and does exactly what the name implies, while TLC stands for Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes.
It's not until you get to number nine on the list that we see a diet hinging on a particular nutrient. The Ornish diet severely restricts fat, which may be wonderful for your heart, but experts dinged it for being difficult to follow. Most of the other fad diets, like Atkins and keto, ranked in the bottom five out of 40 for similar reasons. Some experts even cautioned that keto should only be undertaken with supervision from a nutritionist and physician because it's so imbalanced.
If this seems contrary to the buzz you've read online, it's because the experts behind these U.S. News rankings were instructed to focus on certain key aspects.
- How easy it is to follow
- Its ability to produce short-term ...
- ... and long-term weight loss
- Nutritional completeness
- Its potential for preventing and managing diabetes ...
- ... and heart disease
It's also important to note that these categories weren't all given equal influence. Long-term weight loss got twice the weighting as short-term, since so many diets only focus on how fast you can drop pounds. U.S. News notes that even if you can shed inches off your waist at lightning speed, it doesn't really matter unless you can keep them off. They also double-counted safety, since failing to get certain nutrients can have a severe impact on your health. That's why diets that put extreme limits on things like fat or carbs ended up at the bottom of the pack.
Intense dieting just doesn't work. That may sound disheartening to you, especially if your New Year's resolution involved weight loss. We all want these changes to come quickly and easily. But in a lot of ways, this is good news. Not only do you not have to adhere to a strict diet, you actually shouldn't. Free yourself from the tyranny of lettuce-wrapped “sandwiches” and fat-free salad dressing. Embrace the occasional cookie and the joys of creamy brie with fig jam on toast. Be realistic about your eating habits and aim to make small, consistent changes—it's literally the only way you'll keep the weight off.