Melting from glaciers and permafrost was not kind to the large animals of the last Ice Age. The persistent moisture turned grasslands into peatlands and bogs, a less than ideal habitat for huge grazers. As their world grew wetter, many of these megafaunal animals across Eurasia and the Americas became extinct.
From the danger-sign orange of Monarch butterflies, to the regal blues of the Blue Morpho, butterflies come in a veritable rainbow of colors. The insects display those incredible hues thanks to scales on their wings. Those scales are made up of crystals, which are made up of a sugar molecule called chitin (the same stuff that makes up insect exoskeletons and mushrooms). The tiny crystals on butterflies' scales are called gyroids. They're of interest to biologists, but also to materials scientists. Butterflies' gyroids are for more tiny and precise than anything made by humans today.