Sound the alarms: Water doesn't always freeze when it should. In fact, you can chill water and most other liquids below the temperatures at which they usually freeze. Scientists once cooled water down to the frigid temperature of -51°C, and the H2O remained liquid, at least for a fraction of a second, before it flash-froze. But forget scientists—you can use this phenomenon, called supercooling or undercooling, to make instant slushies—even beer slushies.
If you think building a house on Earth is hard, try building one on Mars. Every pound of material that we ship to the red planet will cost thousands of dollars, so scientists want to construct our future martian colonies out of locally sourced materials—namely, martian dirt. But that's more difficult than it sounds.
A new study released earlier this week in the journal Nature Nanotechnology may be a major step towards making desalinated water—water in which salt is removed to make it safe for drinking—a viable option for more of the world. Researchers from the University of Manchester modified graphene oxide membranes, a type of selectively permeable membrane that allows some molecules to pass while keeping others behind, to let water through while trapping salt ions. It's essentially a molecular sieve.
In 2016, hacked security cameras and PVRs took down the web in the US. One major international bank lost $81 million to cyber criminals. In this climate, skilled hero hackers get paid handsomely to help companies find their weaknesses and stop malicious hackers in their tracks. The Ethical Hacking A to Z Bundle helps you build a lucrative security career with 45 hours of premium instruction, now just $39 at the Popular Science Shop.
Congratulations! So, you've decided to become a better sweeper. Your timing couldn't be better—spring officially began this morning, which makes it a great time to get rid of those winter dust bunnies. And reading this article is your first step towards having cleaner floors. To find the scientifically best way to wield a broom, we spoke with two cleaning experts.